2016年9月22日 星期四

校園災害管理涵構之研究


銘傳大學王价巨教授的研究成果「校園災害管理涵構之研究」登上國際,2014-2015年研究過程中套用這份指標,證實那瑪夏民權國小防災安全係數為81.5%,中英文研究成果摘要亦同步發表如下。

English Title: Study on the context of school-based disaster management
英文論文連結 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.08.005

中文標題:防災校園的全生命週期評估體系研提:以高雄市那瑪夏區民權國小為例
中文全文連結 DOI: 10.6625/DEF.2015(10)




校園災害管理涵構之研究
Study on the Context of School-based Disaster Management

 
近年來天然災害發生頻率快速升高且衝擊加劇。為提高社會整體之災害韌性,除了配合環境特性與加強災害管理工程及管理措施外,更應透過教育宣導,建立正確認知,培養正向積極的防災態度,強化緊急應變能力。學校一方面擔負學童防災教育之責任,亦經常被指定作為避難收容場所,學校也應該完整檢視不同境況下學生的災害風險並提早加以因應。若是學校從實質環境整備到軟體計畫及演練都能完整兼顧,回應全災害管理思考,必然能有效減少人員傷亡和財物損失,增加學校因應災害的韌性。
因此,本研究針對學校建構一套校園災害管理之評估架構,從導入情境思考、緊急思維、災害心理等概念著手,以校園災害防救計畫與兵推/演練之完整有效性為檢核依據,針對既有校園建構出「環境掌握」、「學校能力」、「校園防災地圖」、「相關資源導入」、「教材教案開發導入」等五大面向之指標內容,最後以包含高雄市民權國小等共35所學校進行試評驗證,導入台灣社會文化及環境特質之驗證。經由35所學校試評結果發現,學校在災害管理能力上,普遍在人力、組織、經費、物資或災害管理器具、校園防災地圖的製作,以及對學校所在自然、人文環境和校園災害管理之規劃設計等面向,具備較充足的準備與投入程;對於校外資源的掌握與連結,則相對較為保守與消極;被指定為避難收容場所之學校,並未特別強化其校園災害管理能力。參與校園防災計畫確實有助提升學校之災害防救能力與能量,尤其在學校能力、相關資源導入與教材教案開發導入等面向上助益最多,且有助避難收容學校了解身為避難收容場所之任務。偏鄉部落學校因政府資源之投入且人數較少,整體表現最佳;一般偏遠學校在本身資源與外來資源皆不足之情況下,表現有待改善;人口密集度高的都會學校,雖有充足資源,卻相對缺乏對校園災害管理工作之投注心力,對申請經費、資源或其他相關災害管理合作事宜較為消極。

關鍵字:災害管理、校園、韌性、容受力、脆弱度、校園災害防救計畫

Abstract

In recent years, the incidence and impact of natural disasters have drastically increased. Schools are responsible for not only teaching disaster management knowledge but also serving as evacuation shelters. Occurrences of disasters are highly unpredictable. If a disaster happens during school hours, schools must consider the risks that students are exposed to and respond early to such an event. Moreover, if schools can implement an all-hazards management approach by comprehensively organising practical environmental preparedness, software plans, and disaster drills, then injuries, deaths, and property damages can be effectively reduced and school resilience to disasters can successfully enhanced. Therefore, this study established an assessment framework for school disaster management involving concepts such as scenario setting, emergency thinking, and disaster psychology. School disaster management plans and the integrity and validity of disaster drills were used as the basis of evaluation. According to the existent schools in Taiwan, this study proposed indicators for five major assessment dimensions, which were environmental context, school capability, school disaster management map, related resource importation, and teaching material development and implementation. Finally, 35 schools were evaluated to verify that the proposed school disaster management indicator system can effectively distinguish and reflect the disaster management condition of each type of school. Additionally, this system can facilitate schools to regularly inspect and verify various disaster management tasks, thereby enhancing their capability in responding to disasters.

Keywords

  • Disaster management
  • School
  • Resilience
  • Carrying capacity
  • Vulnerability
  • School disaster management plan
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