2014年7月14日 星期一

日本 Renai House 災難後的永續住屋

災民在接受生理醫療後,也需要心理上的重建。那麼,有沒有可能以快速、彈性並維護尊嚴的方式,建造一個急難住屋?
Renai House under construction / 營造中的 Renai House。
文/陳彥廷 (台達能源教育青年大使,新竹高中)

Hello, this is Tim again.
哈囉,又是我,彥廷。

I hope you enjoy the tour at the Orchid house last time, which is designed by the team from our homeland Taiwan. Today I’m going to take you guys around in the Solar Village, and discover more about green housing.

希望大家喜歡上次對蘭花屋的介紹,蘭花屋是台灣的交大隊伍設計。今天我要帶你們大家到這座太陽能村,看看更多綠色建築。

In addition of sustainability and energy efficiency, each team also has to confront their own social problems. Among all the teams that participate in SDE 2014, there was one that caught my attention first, it was the Japanese team, who try to find new solutions for emergency housing.

除了永續性與能源效率,每個隊伍也需要正面去解決各自的社會問題。在參加2014年太陽能建築十項全能綠色競賽的所有隊伍之中,最先吸引我注意的是日本隊,他們嘗試為急難時的臨時住屋 (emergency housing) 找出新的對策。

The reason that I get interested in this team is that our country, Taiwan, should also think about the same question. Taiwan as well as Japan, are all located in earthquake zones; aside from earthquakes, we also got monsoons and typhoons that bring us quite a lot of troubles each year. We should be learning, and also thinking about faster and more efficient ways to help our victims after catastrophes.

會對日本隊有興趣,是因為我的國家,台灣,也該思考同樣的問題。如同日本一樣,台灣位於地震帶上。除了地震,我們也會遇到季風降雨與颱風,每年帶來相當多麻煩。我們應該要持續學習與思考,如何在災難之後快速並更有效的幫助受災同胞。

Now let’s look at Japan’s plan first. Experiencing the tsunami that struck three years ago, the architectural team from Chiba University (千葉大學) started brainstorming about the emergency housing problem. After the disaster, the victims usually need immediate support, but the temporary shelters needs time to be transported, not to mention the condition of the place. Furthermore, the victims need not only physical healing, mental rebuilding is needed too. Is it possible to build an emergency shelter with speed, flexibility and dignity?

現在讓我們先來看看日本隊的作品。三年前歷經海嘯襲擊,來自千葉大學的建築團隊針對急難住屋議題有番腦力激盪。災難後,災民通常需要立即協助,但臨時性避難居所需要時間來運輸,更別說災區情況未明。而災民在接受生理醫療後,也需要心理上的重建。那麼,有沒有可能以快速、彈性並維護尊嚴的方式,建造一個急難住屋?

Yes, “Speed”, “Flexibility”, “Dignity” is the three goals Chiba University set for their project – Renai House. The Renai House has a simple, gray box-like outlook, I agree that it doesn’t look that exciting, but a shape like this creates perfect size for truck or ship transportation. There is no need to break the house into tiny pieces, and the whole structure can be assembled just in a flash by combining a few “bricks” together. The Renai House is also going to be manufactured in nearby factories. All these planning will made up the “Speed”.

「速度」、「彈性」與「尊嚴」,是千葉大學為他們作品「Renai House」設立的三個目標。Renai House看來就像個簡單的灰色箱子,我承認看起來並不讓人驚喜,但這個房屋的形狀大小其實恰好符合貨車與船舶運輸,不需要拆裝,且可快速地將幾個「磚頭」組合成一個大結構,因此可以在附近工廠組裝,達到快速的目的。

About the second goal “Flexibility”. The core of the Renai House “Urban Seed”, is the piece that contains all plumbing, wiring, and basic home appliances, by adding more or less other parts on, the Renai House can be designed as the habitats preference, or even offices, clinics, schools ext. The “Lego style” design leaves the usage of the structure to your creativity.

「Renai House」的核心叫做「都市種子 Urban Seed」,單一個方塊即包含水管、電線與基本的家用電器;只要將或多或少的種子組合起來,便可為不同所在地而適地設計,甚至可成為辦公室、診所或學校等。「樂高式」的設計容許使用者依照功能,以創意來改變結構。這便是第二目標的「彈性」。

“Dignity” might be a little bit hard to explain. After the disaster, the plan is to plant in the Urban Seeds in priority, it will be a sharing shelter and kitchen that helps rebuild the victims hope and the community. Then it grows and flourish into private houses or others, lastly forming a new city. This process grows the house itself, and grows the victims confident at the same time, and I guess that’s the reason for calling it “Dignity”.

「尊嚴」可能有點難以解釋。災情發生後,這個計劃會優先設置「都市種子」,將會是共享的避難所與廚房,協助受災戶重建社區與希望。然後,都市種子逐漸增長並繁茂,轉而變為私有住宅或其他機能,最後形成一個新的城市。在房屋自己增長的過程中,同時間受災戶也增長了自信心,我想這是稱其為「尊嚴」的原因。

Shaping a new town in affected area with Urban Seed /
用都市種子組合成新聚落 (via official website of Renai House)

The power for the Renai House is generated by the PV panels on top of the Urban Seed, and the extra power will be stored in the batteries, being used for car charging. They actually parked a car next to the Renai House to charge. The other kind of thermal panels are the one that water runs through, the liquid gets heated by this process. These are the energy strategy of the house.

Renai House的用電來源,來自於都市種子頂上的太陽能光電板,多出來的電力則儲存在電池,用來為汽車充電,汽車就停在房子旁。另外也安裝太陽熱能熱水系統。這兩者就是房子的能源策略。

Also, by designing the structure to be highly insulate, and using natural wood as the material, the Renai House can perfectly maintain the indoor temperature and other conditions. Comparing to normal houses in Japan, it sharply cuts down the energy consumption by 80%. That’s a astonishing energy efficiency!

此外,由於採取高度隔熱設計,並使用天然木材為建材,Renai House能妥善保持室內溫度與環境條件。與日本的一般房屋相比,它能大幅削減能源耗用80%,這是一個相當可觀的節能效率!

The interior of the Renai House has a Japanese style, which is quite simple but cozy. The inner space includes a kitchen, a bathroom, a free using room, and the bedroom, living room and dining area are three in one. It isn’t a complicated design, which is pretty much suitable and comfortable for victims.

Renai House的室內裝潢則是日本家居風格,簡單舒適,包括廚房、浴室,與一個自由使用的空間,臥室與客廳、餐廳則是三者合一。設計並不複雜,對於受災戶而言非常適合與舒適。

That’s how the Renai House is, what do you think about it? An emergency shelter should be fast to build, but the comfort should be considered equally, because what the victims need is not only a place for living, but they also need a place for their heart and future. Taiwan should think these over. Here I’m hoping that someday Taiwan could realize that housing could also be a strategy to give hope to others.

以上是Renai House的介紹,各位覺得如何?緊急避難所應該要快速建立,但同樣要考慮舒適性,畢竟受災戶需要的不僅是棲身之所,同時也需要一個心理與未來可以安定下來的地方。台灣也該想到這些。我希望有天台灣能了解,提供住屋,也會是給予他人「希望」的一種方式。




The heated air pass below the floor and sends out from these tiny holes, /暖氣通氣孔


The Movable wall allows habitats to create their private space/
可移動的推牆,能創造私人空間。

【延伸閱讀】
2014年日本隊 Renai House計劃介紹
更多照片
綠核藍天能源屋 扭轉您對鐵皮屋頂的想像》陳彥廷 02-July-2014 低碳生活部落格
回應社會需求 新世代的建築功能美學》潘蜜拉 08-July-2014 低碳生活部落格
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