2014年7月22日 星期二

提出最好的都市策略 才是好建築

圖:House with a Skin

文/陳彥廷 (台達能源教育青年大使,新竹高中)

Congratulations! Team UNICODE won the first prize for “Urban Design, Transportation & Affordability”.


The prize of “UDTA” rewards the teams who came up with the best urban strategy, and having friendly design and price for the aiming residents. As some of you might not know, “architecture” is not just about designing or constructing; houses, buildings are built for people to be lived and used, the interaction with human and society is the part that matters more. That’s what this prize is trying to remind everyone.


Now here are some other team projects which their urban strategy interests me a lot, I would like to introduce them to you:


(1) Team Netherlands – Home with a Skin  荷蘭隊 

圖:Home with a Skin 

The outlook of “Home with a Skin” might not look special. In fact, it’s no more than a traditional European house covered with a layer of glass, it’s too ordinary to be remembered. That was my first impression of the house.

「Home with a Skin」的外觀可能看起來並不特別。事實上,這不過是一間傳統的歐洲房屋,外層多鋪上了一層玻璃,它實在太尋常,很難被記住。這就是我對這房子的第一印象。

However, I was amazed when I was given a tour of the house, “Home with a Skin” is more than how I could imagine. The traditional brick house is just a base to display their concept; it is the most common type of housing that could be seen in Netherlands right now, which is built after the II world war. The structure is quite strong and it’s pretty comfortable interior, but that’s how it was 70 years ago. These houses are now mostly too old, the pipelines and other facilities are in bad condition and needs repair; not to mention the extremely high energy consumption.

然而,在我接受導覽的時候,我才感到驚嘆「Home with a Skin」超脫了我能想像的境地。傳統磚造房子只是展現他們概念的基礎;這類房屋是目前荷蘭最常見到的樣式,興建於二戰之後。它的結構堅固,室內十分舒適,但這是70年前的看法。這些房子現在大多陳舊,管線和其他水電設施狀況不佳,亟待維修;更不用說能源消耗量極高。

“Home of a Skin” is the solution to the problem. The “Skin”, which includes the glass structure, green roof and the new plumbing system, is planned to be added to the original houses. The solar panels generate the energy and heat water, the new plumbing system could reduce energy consumption, and the combination could replace the old water and electricity system, forming a self-sufficient home. The glass structure creates a semi-outer space, it’s a pretty nice place for a meal; the angle of the panels could also be opened, allowing air to circulate indoors, and making more energy by tracking the angle of the sunlight.

「Home with a Skin」便是要來解決這個問題。所謂的「Skin 外殼」包括玻璃結構、綠屋頂與新的管線系統,是設計來外加在既有房屋外的。太陽能板生成綠能與熱水,新的管線系統減少能源消耗,結合兩者可替代掉舊有的水電系統,塑造一個自給自足的家。玻璃結構則創造一個半露天的空間,作為用餐地點相當不錯;太陽能板的角度也可以保持空曠,讓空氣流通到室內,光電板也能追蹤太陽光的角度,以產生更多的能源。

The project team from Netherlands had already started to practice their concept, “Home with a Skin” is now a government plan in Netherlands for renewing old houses. The installing choices are also customized, the residents can choose the parts that they need or don’t. That’s also why team Netherlands got the prize for communication.

這個來自荷蘭的隊伍已經開始實踐自己的構想,「Home with a Skin」現在已經獲得荷蘭政府的計劃支持,逐步更新當地的老房子。外殼要安裝哪些項目也能客製化,住戶可選擇那些是他們需要的,那些則不需要。這也是荷蘭隊拿到「溝通」獎項的原因。

(2) Team Barcelona - Ressò House 巴塞隆納隊

The Team from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) in Barcelona, Spain, had come to the Solar Decathlon Europe to challenge the public and juries what a house is. Unlike most teams who create a comfortable, clean and stylish home, the Ressò Team had created a bold and rough co-housing. The outlook is merely a simple box shape, and the scaffoldings are shown indoors, every material and design looks cheap and unfinished, it’s not really close to a “house” at all.


In fact, as a co-housing, the Ressò House features in its super low price, wide inner space and flexibility of designing. Due to the high price of urban housing, owning or renting a living space became pretty hard in Barcelona, so the team came up with this project for a co-housing, with the sharing kitchen, bathroom, or other facilities that a rental house might not include; it could also be either a community center or a small cinema, the large space has plenty of use.

事實上,作為共同住居的房屋,Ressò House的特點是超便宜的價錢,寬敞的室內空間與設計上的彈性。在巴塞隆納因為市區房價或租金高昂,擁有生活起居空間變得相當困難,所以這個團隊想出了共同居住的計畫,共享廚房、浴室或其他租屋可能未必涵蓋的設施;它可以成為一個社區中心或一間小型電影院,一個擁有很多功能用途的大空間。


The other advantage of the house is the speed and low price of construction, the structure isn’t really complicated, and the materials are cheap, such as scaffoldings, chipboards and polycarbonates, so it’s definitely affordable for every family or community. Although the materials are cheap, the comfort conditions are still nice, the two layered polycarbonate wall forms a perfect insulation when the chinks are shut, but also creates a great chimney effect when their opened; so the interior could keep warm in cold days, and stay cool in the hot days with air circulation. Actually, they could still perfectly control the temperature without a AC!


The team projects above might not be the one who win the first prize for UDTA, but they are smart and passionate enough to spread and practice their idea, and that’s what Taiwan lacks for. In Taiwan, people are too passive on these issues, we talk about social problems all the time, but we seldom practice it in reality. We have proven our great ideas, and now it’s time to make it come true.


荷蘭隊 Home with a skin
加泰隆尼亞隊 Ressò House