2014年7月22日 星期二

提出最好的都市策略 才是好建築

獲得「城市設計獎」獎勵的團隊,能針對其所設定的目標居民,提出最好的都市策略、最友善的設計與租/售價。
圖:House with a Skin

文/陳彥廷 (台達能源教育青年大使,新竹高中)

Congratulations! Team UNICODE won the first prize for “Urban Design, Transportation & Affordability”.

恭喜!交大蘭花屋UNICODE團隊贏得了「城市設計、交通及可負擔能力」這個分項獎項的首獎。

The prize of “UDTA” rewards the teams who came up with the best urban strategy, and having friendly design and price for the aiming residents. As some of you might not know, “architecture” is not just about designing or constructing; houses, buildings are built for people to be lived and used, the interaction with human and society is the part that matters more. That’s what this prize is trying to remind everyone.

獲得「城市設計獎」獎勵的團隊,能針對其所設定的目標居民,提出最好的都市策略、最友善的設計與租/售價。可能有些人不知道,「建築/architecture」不只是設計或是營造;房屋、建築物是蓋來讓人們可以居住和使用,因而人類和社會間的互動也更形重要。這就是這個獎項所要提醒大家的。

Now here are some other team projects which their urban strategy interests me a lot, I would like to introduce them to you:

還有其他團隊的都市策略也深深吸引著我,讓我來為各位介紹:

(1) Team Netherlands – Home with a Skin  荷蘭隊 

圖:Home with a Skin 

The outlook of “Home with a Skin” might not look special. In fact, it’s no more than a traditional European house covered with a layer of glass, it’s too ordinary to be remembered. That was my first impression of the house.

「Home with a Skin」的外觀可能看起來並不特別。事實上,這不過是一間傳統的歐洲房屋,外層多鋪上了一層玻璃,它實在太尋常,很難被記住。這就是我對這房子的第一印象。

However, I was amazed when I was given a tour of the house, “Home with a Skin” is more than how I could imagine. The traditional brick house is just a base to display their concept; it is the most common type of housing that could be seen in Netherlands right now, which is built after the II world war. The structure is quite strong and it’s pretty comfortable interior, but that’s how it was 70 years ago. These houses are now mostly too old, the pipelines and other facilities are in bad condition and needs repair; not to mention the extremely high energy consumption.

然而,在我接受導覽的時候,我才感到驚嘆「Home with a Skin」超脫了我能想像的境地。傳統磚造房子只是展現他們概念的基礎;這類房屋是目前荷蘭最常見到的樣式,興建於二戰之後。它的結構堅固,室內十分舒適,但這是70年前的看法。這些房子現在大多陳舊,管線和其他水電設施狀況不佳,亟待維修;更不用說能源消耗量極高。



“Home of a Skin” is the solution to the problem. The “Skin”, which includes the glass structure, green roof and the new plumbing system, is planned to be added to the original houses. The solar panels generate the energy and heat water, the new plumbing system could reduce energy consumption, and the combination could replace the old water and electricity system, forming a self-sufficient home. The glass structure creates a semi-outer space, it’s a pretty nice place for a meal; the angle of the panels could also be opened, allowing air to circulate indoors, and making more energy by tracking the angle of the sunlight.

「Home with a Skin」便是要來解決這個問題。所謂的「Skin 外殼」包括玻璃結構、綠屋頂與新的管線系統,是設計來外加在既有房屋外的。太陽能板生成綠能與熱水,新的管線系統減少能源消耗,結合兩者可替代掉舊有的水電系統,塑造一個自給自足的家。玻璃結構則創造一個半露天的空間,作為用餐地點相當不錯;太陽能板的角度也可以保持空曠,讓空氣流通到室內,光電板也能追蹤太陽光的角度,以產生更多的能源。


The project team from Netherlands had already started to practice their concept, “Home with a Skin” is now a government plan in Netherlands for renewing old houses. The installing choices are also customized, the residents can choose the parts that they need or don’t. That’s also why team Netherlands got the prize for communication.

這個來自荷蘭的隊伍已經開始實踐自己的構想,「Home with a Skin」現在已經獲得荷蘭政府的計劃支持,逐步更新當地的老房子。外殼要安裝哪些項目也能客製化,住戶可選擇那些是他們需要的,那些則不需要。這也是荷蘭隊拿到「溝通」獎項的原因。

(2) Team Barcelona - Ressò House 巴塞隆納隊


The Team from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) in Barcelona, Spain, had come to the Solar Decathlon Europe to challenge the public and juries what a house is. Unlike most teams who create a comfortable, clean and stylish home, the Ressò Team had created a bold and rough co-housing. The outlook is merely a simple box shape, and the scaffoldings are shown indoors, every material and design looks cheap and unfinished, it’s not really close to a “house” at all.

巴塞隆納的加泰隆尼亞理工大學團隊,到歐洲太陽能建築十項全能綠色競賽來,向大眾與評審團挑戰著一個概念─房子究竟是甚麼?不像大多數隊伍蓋出舒適、整潔與時尚的住宅,Ressò團隊營造出來的是一個大膽、不過度修飾的共同居住概念。它的外觀僅是一個簡單的盒狀,室內可看到結構支架,每個材料與設計看來都是便宜、未完成。它不能真的算是一棟「房屋」。

In fact, as a co-housing, the Ressò House features in its super low price, wide inner space and flexibility of designing. Due to the high price of urban housing, owning or renting a living space became pretty hard in Barcelona, so the team came up with this project for a co-housing, with the sharing kitchen, bathroom, or other facilities that a rental house might not include; it could also be either a community center or a small cinema, the large space has plenty of use.

事實上,作為共同住居的房屋,Ressò House的特點是超便宜的價錢,寬敞的室內空間與設計上的彈性。在巴塞隆納因為市區房價或租金高昂,擁有生活起居空間變得相當困難,所以這個團隊想出了共同居住的計畫,共享廚房、浴室或其他租屋可能未必涵蓋的設施;它可以成為一個社區中心或一間小型電影院,一個擁有很多功能用途的大空間。

圖:室內共同的開放空間。

The other advantage of the house is the speed and low price of construction, the structure isn’t really complicated, and the materials are cheap, such as scaffoldings, chipboards and polycarbonates, so it’s definitely affordable for every family or community. Although the materials are cheap, the comfort conditions are still nice, the two layered polycarbonate wall forms a perfect insulation when the chinks are shut, but also creates a great chimney effect when their opened; so the interior could keep warm in cold days, and stay cool in the hot days with air circulation. Actually, they could still perfectly control the temperature without a AC!

另一個優點是營建快速且造價低廉,這是由於結構並不複雜,而且建材便宜,例如鷹架、塑合板和PC板,必定能讓所有家庭或社區都可以負擔得起。雖然說建材便宜,但舒適度並不打折,用兩層PC板組成的牆壁,關起來是絕佳的隔間,但推開後便形成煙囪效應,如此一來,室內可以寒冷的日子裡保持溫暖,熱天卻會因為空氣對流而涼爽。實際上,它可以在不須空調的狀況下,完美的控制室內溫度!

圖:裸露未包覆的鋼架支柱。
The team projects above might not be the one who win the first prize for UDTA, but they are smart and passionate enough to spread and practice their idea, and that’s what Taiwan lacks for. In Taiwan, people are too passive on these issues, we talk about social problems all the time, but we seldom practice it in reality. We have proven our great ideas, and now it’s time to make it come true.

這兩隊雖然沒拿到「城市設計獎」首獎,但他們展現的智慧與熱情足以傳播並實踐自己的想法,而這正是台灣缺乏的。我們在台灣對這類的議題過於被動,一直談論社會問題,卻很少付諸行動。我們已經證明了我們有宏大想法,現在是時候讓想法成真了。

【延伸閱讀】
荷蘭隊 Home with a skin
加泰隆尼亞隊 Ressò House
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